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Phylogenetic Methods and Programs Online Exam Quiz

Important questions about Phylogenetic Methods and Programs. Phylogenetic Methods and Programs MCQ questions with answers. Phylogenetic Methods and Programs exam questions and answers for students and interviews.

Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history of living organisms using treelike diagrams to represent pedigrees of these organisms.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

The descriptions of morphological traits are often _____ which are due to _____

Options

A : a. ambiguous, multiple genetic factors

B : b. lucid, more than one genetic factors

C : c. clear, multiple genetic factors

D : d. ambiguous, one or two genetic factors

Which of the following is incorrect regarding the advantages of Molecular data for phylogenetics study?

Options

A : a. They are more numerous than fossil records

B : b. They are easier to obtain as compared to fossil records

C : c. Sampling bias is involved

D : d. More clear-cut and robust phylogenetic trees can be constructed with the molecular data

To use molecular data to reconstruct evolutionary history requires making a number of reasonable assumptions. Which of the following is incorrect about it?

Options

A : a. The molecular sequences used in phylogenetic construction are homologous

B : b. The molecular sequences used in phylogenetic construction share a common origin

C : c. Phylogenetic divergence cannot be bifurcating

D : d. Parent branch splits into two daughter branches at any given point

Building phylogenetic tree involves bifurcation and multifurcation.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

Which of the following is incorrect regarding the terminologies of phylogenetics?

Options

A : a. The connecting point where two adjacent branches join is called a node

B : b. Node represents an inferred ancestor of extant taxa

C : c. At the tips of the branches are long lost species or sequences

D : d. The lines in the tree are called branches

Because there is no indication of which node represents an ancestor, there is no direction of an evolutionary path in an unrooted tree.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

Molecular clock is an assumption by which molecular sequences evolve at varying rates.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

A gene phylogeny only describes the evolution of a particular gene or encoded protein.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

Evolution of a particular sequence _______ correlate with the evolutionary path of the species.

Options

A : a. does not

B : b. always

C : c. does not necessarily

D : d. invariably

The species evolution is the ______ of evolution by _____ in a genome.

Options

A : a. combined result, multiple genes

B : b. result, single genes

C : c. result, sole genes

D : d. distinct results, single gene

To obtain a species phylogeny, phylogenetic trees from a variety of gene families need to be constructed.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

It is often desirable to define the root of a tree. There are two ways to define the root of a tree. One is to use an outgroup, which ______

Options

A : a. is a sequence that is homologous to the sequences under consideration

B : b. is separated from those sequences at an early evolutionary time

C : c. is generally determined from independent sources of information

D : d. is generally determined from similar or related sources of information

Which of the following is incorrect statement about the Kimura model?

Options

A : a. It is a model to correct evolutionary distances and is a more sophisticated model

B : b. In this, the mutation rates for transitions and transversion are assumed to be different

C : c. According to this model, occur more frequently than transversions

D : d. According to this model, transversions occur more frequently than transitions

Which of the following is incorrect statement about Choosing Substitution Models?

Options

A : a. There is one substitution at a particular position, in divergent sequences

B : b. The evolutionary divergence is beyond the ability of the statistical models to correct

C : c. The statistical models used to correct homoplasy are called substitution models or evolutionary models

D : d. For constructing DNA phylogenies, there are nucleotide substitution models available

The second step in phylogenetic analysis is to construct sequence alignment. This is probably the most critical step in the procedure because it establishes positional correspondence in evolution.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

Which of the following is an incorrect statement about Newick Format?

Options

A : a. It was designed to provide information of tree topology to computer programs without having to draw the tree itself

B : b. In this format, trees are represented by taxa excluded in nested parentheses

C : c. In this linear representation, each internal node is represented by a pair of parentheses

D : d. For a tree with scaled branch lengths, the branch lengths in arbitrary units are placed immediately after the name of the taxon separated by a colon

Sometimes a tree-building method may result in several equally optimal trees. A consensus tree can be built by showing the commonly resolved bifurcating portions and collapsing the ones that disagree among the trees, which results in a polytomy.

Options

A : a. True

B : b. False

C : c. May be True or False

D : d. Can't say

The number of rooted trees (NR) for n taxa is ______

Options

A : a. NR = (2n? 3)!/2??² (n? 2)!

B : b. NR = (2n? 3)!/2? (n? 2)!

C : c. NR = (2n? 3)!/2??² (n? 5)!

D : d. NR = (2n? 3)!/2??² (n? 2)!

For unrooted trees, the number of unrooted tree topologies (NU) is ________

Options

A : a. NU = (2n? 5)!/2??³(n? 5)!

B : b. NU = (2n? 5)!/2??³(n? 3)!

C : c. NU = (2n? 5)!/2¯²(n? 3)!

D : d. NU = (2n? 5)!/2?(n? 3)!

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